Wednesday, 9 January 2013

Cisco 2504 FUS Update for 7.4 Code

"Cisco Unified Wireless Network Field Upgrade Software (FUS), Release, is a special AES package that performs various system-related component upgrades for Cisco Wireless LAN 2500 Series Controllers.

If you are using a Cisco 2500 Series Controller and you upgrade to the controller software release and intend to use the Application Visibility and Control (AVC) and NetFlow protocol features, you must install Cisco Unified Wireless Network Field Upgrade Software, Release This release is not required if you are using other controller hardware models."

This definitely worth noting if you are upgrading to 7.4, as the new AVC features will not work without it.

Also, it is well worth attaching a console cable whilst doing the upgrade as it takes a long time (around 30 minutes). Without the console, you'll be sitting there with your fingers crossed, breaking out in a cold sweat after about 15 minutes wondering if you've bricked your controller.

Tuesday, 8 January 2013

Apple TV Services

I've been taking a look at the Bonjour protocol in general recently due to some requirements I have been looking at for customers.

The availability of Bonjour gateways from the likes of Cisco and Aerohive certainly make things a lot easier to provide access to Bonour services without having to jump through lots of multicast-over-wireless hoops.

One area of particular focus has been Apple TV. It seems to be quite a popular device with execs who want to be able to mirror their iPad on to a meeting room projector.

There are some great tools that allow you to browse the services that are available on a network. I have been using Bonjour Browser for Windows, though other Mac equivalents are also available.

When looking at the services available from an Apple TV, I see the following services advertised:
  • _airplay._tcp.
  • _raop._tcp.
  • _sleep-proxy._udp.
  • _touch-able._tcp.
  • _appletv-v2._tcp

I was interested to know what each of these services does. So, here it what I've been able to turn up with a bit of Googling (it's also worth looking in this document to find out even more information about each service):


This service is Airplay which is used for streaming photo and video content.


This service is RAOP which is the 'remote audio output protocol' that is used for audio streaming.


This service is a difficult one to nail-down in terms of function. It is a service that responds on behalf of devices which have gone in to sleep mode  (for power-save purposes). I assume that it is acting on behalf of the other Apple TV services, as all of the services mentioned in this document remain visible, even when the Apple TV unit has gone to sleep. I set my Apple TV to go in to sleep mode after 15 minutes (after which time the lamp indicator goes out on the front of the Apple TV unit) - all services were still visible across the network.

For more info, see


This service is used to allow iPads/iPods etc. to be used as a remote controller for the Apple TV unit (see the Remote app on the iTunes Store)


This service pops up when you enable the home sharing option on Apple TV. 


Apple iTunes Services

This is just a quick note about some Apple services you may see advertised using mDNS when you are implementing a Bonjour gateway on your wireless network. I've been investigating which services might be visible when the iTunes application is being run on computers that are connected to the wireless network.

From my testing, I have only been able to find 2 services you may come across when using iTunes (this just considers the iTunes application and does not include any other services from Apple TV, printers etc.):
  • _daap._tcp.local.
  • _apple-mobdev._tcp.local.


This service becomes available when you choose the option to share your library on the local network Share library on local network:

The service advertisements are generated by the iTunes software on the computer (and hence originate from the computer itself) to be detected by other devices/computers across the network


This service becomes visible when the 'Sync over Wifi' option is selected for a device that is connected to the computer running via the sync cable. Once this option has been enabled, the device can sync with iTunes using the WiFi network rather than having to be tethered by the sync cable.

Interestingly, the _apple-mobdev._tcp.local. service advertisements come from the device itself (e.g. the iPad which has WiFi sync enabled), NOT the iTunes software on the computer.


In summary, you may see the following services from when iTunes is being used on your network:
  • _daap._tcp.local. (from the iTunes computer)
  • _apple-mobdev._tcp.local. (from the mobille device - e.g. iPad)
If you come across any other services that may be associated with iTunes, let me know - these were the only 2 I could find (see screenshot below).